Sample Research Paper From Diana Hacker



Material Type

Citation Format and Example

Retrieved from the Academy of Art University Library
Book
Format:
Author's last name, first name. Title of book. Publication city: Publisher, year. Medium of publication.
Example - One Author:
Bleicher, Steven. Contemporary Color Theory & Use. New York: Delmar, 2012. Print.
Example - Two Authors:
Okuda, Michael, and Denise Okuda. Star Trek Chronology: The History of the Future. New York: Pocket, 1993. Print.
See Section 5.5 of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers for more information.


Electronic Book
Format:
Author's last name, first name. Title of book. Publication city: Publisher, year. Title of database or website. Medium consulted. Date of access.
Example - One Author:
Hirsch, Robert. Light and Lens : Photography in the Digital Age. Burlington, MA: Focal Press, 2007. ebrary collections. Web. 21 June 2011.
Example - Three Authors:
Burtenshaw, Ken, Nik Mahon, and Caroline Barfoot. Fundamentals of Creative Advertising : An Introduction to Branding. London, GBR: AVA Publishing, 2006.ebrary collections. Web. 21 June 2011.
See Sections 5.6.2 and 5.5 of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papersfor more information.


Illustrated Book
Format:
Author’s last name, first name. Title of work. Illustrator’s first name last name. Publication city: Publisher, year. Medium of publication.
For a volume in which illustrations supplement the written text, such as an illustrated edition of a literary work, give the illustrator’s name, preceded by the abbreviation Illus. (“Illustrated by”), after the title. If another contributor (e.g., an editor or a translator) is also cited after the title, place the names in the order in which they appear on the title page.
Example:
Carroll, Lewis. Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland. Illus. Arthur Rackham. Poem by Austin Dobson. New York: Sea Star Books, 2002.
If you refer mainly to the illustrator's work instead of the author's in your research, begin the entry in the works-cited list with the illustrator's name, followed by illus. ("illustrator"), and give the author's name, preceded by the word By, after the title.
Example:
Tenniel, John, illus. Alice Through the Looking-Glass. By Lewis Carroll. Academy Editions: London, 1977. Print.
See Section 5.5.12 of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers for more information.


Graphic Novel
Format:
Author’s last name, first name. Title of work. Publication city: Publisher, year. Medium of publication.
In a graphic novel, text and illustrations are intermingled. The entry in the works-cited list for a graphic novel entirely created by one person follows the same format as any other non-periodical print publication.
Example:
Barry, Lynda. What It Is. Montreal: Drawn & Quarterly, 2008. Print.
If the graphic novel is part of a multivolume work, you may add information about the series following the medium of publication.
Example:
Miller, Frank. Just Another Saturday Night. Milwaukie, OR: Dark Horse Books, 2005. Print. Vol. 6 of Frank Miller’s Sin City: Booze, Broads, & Bullets.
For graphic novels created through collaboration, begin the entry with the name of the person whose contribution is the most relevant to your research, following it with a label identifying the person’s role. List other collaborators after the title in the order in which they appear on the title page, also with labels identifying their roles.
Example:
Pekar, Harvey, writer. The Quitter. Art by Dean Haspiel. Gray tones by Lee Loughridge. Letters by Pat Brosseau. New York: Vertigo-DC Comics, 2005. Print.
See Section 5.5.12 of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers for more information.


Encyclopedia Article:
Format:
Author's last name, first name. "Title of article." Encyclopedia name. Editor's first name last name. Volume consulted. Publication city: Publisher, year. Medium of publication.
Example:
Kemp, Martin. "Science and art." The Dictionary of Art. Ed. Jane Turner. Vol. 28. New York: Grove Dictionaries, 1996. Print.
See Section 5.5.7 of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers for more information.


Scholarly Journal Article:
Format:
Author's last name, first name. "Title of article." Title of journalVolume.Issue (Year): Pages. Medium of publication.
Examples:
Wilcox, Rhonda V. "Shifting Roles and Synthetic Women in Star Trek: The Next Generation." Studies in Popular Culture 13.2 (1991): 53-65. Print.
Solomon, Jonathon D. "Learning from Louis Vuitton." Journal of Architectural Education 63.2 (2010): 67-70. Print.
See Section 5.4 of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers for more information.


Newspaper or Magazine Article:
Format:
Author's last name, first name. "Title of article." Title of newspaper or magazine Date of publication: Pages. Medium of publication.
Example:
Di Rado, Alicia. "Trekking through College: Classes Explore Modern Society Using the World of Star Trek." Los Angeles Times 15 Mar. 1995: A3. Print.
See Sections 5.4.5 and 5.4.6 of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papersfor more information.


Cartoon or
Comic Strip:
Format:
Artist’s last name, first name. "Title of cartoon or comic strip (if any)." Descriptive label. Title of newspaper or magazine Date of publication: Pages. Medium of publication.
Example - Cartoon:
Gross, Sam. Cartoon. New Yorker 23 May 2011: 28. Print.
Example - Comic Strip:
McDonnell, Patrick. "Mutts." Comic strip. San Francisco Chronicle 25 June 2011: E7. Print.
See Section 5.7.9 of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers for more information.


Article from an Online Database:
Format:
Author’s last name, first name. “Title of article.” Title of journal or magazineVolume.Issue (Year): Pages. Title of database. Medium consulted. Date of access. <URL (optional)>.
URLs are now an optional component of a citation, but it is still recommended to include this information if the reader will not be able to locate a resource without it, or it is part of an instructor’s requirements.


When providing a URL, enclose the complete address in angle brackets following the date of access, period, and a space. End the entire entry with a period after the closing angle bracket:
Example - Proquest:
McCarthy, Erin. "10 Scenes That Changed Movie History." Popular Mechanics184.1 (2007): 64. Research Library Core, ProQuest. Web. 23 Feb. 2010.
Example - Wilson Web:
Jays, David. “First Love, Last Rites.” Sight & Sound 17.10 (2007): 34-5. Art Full Text, H. W. Wilson. Web. 23 Feb. 2010.
See Sections 5.6.3 and 5.6.4 of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papersfor more information.


Website:
Format:
Name of author, editor, director, etc. "Title of work (for a specific article or page)." Title of website. Date of posting/revision. Publisher/sponsor of website. Date of publication. Medium consulted. Date of access. <URL (optional)>.
URLs are now an optional component of a citation, but it is still recommended to include this information if the reader will not be able to locate a resource without it, or it is part of an instructor’s requirements.


When providing a URL, enclose the complete address in angle brackets following the date of access, period, and a space. End the entire entry with a period after the closing angle bracket:
Example - Article or Page:
Gross, Doug. "It's Social Media Day -- again!" CNN.com. Cable News Network, 30 June 2011. Web. 30 June 2011.
Example - Blog Posting:
Vigor, Emily. "The art of Cera Hensly and the AAU Library Photography section."AAU Library Blog. Academy of Art University Library. 16 Mar. 2011. Web. 30 June 2011. <http://elmo.academyart.edu/blog/?p=787>.
See Section 5.6.2 of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers for more information.


Image from a Printed Source:
Format:
Artist’s last name, first name. Title of artwork. Year. Name of institution/private collection housing artwork. Title of print source. Author/editor’s first name last name. Publication city: Publisher, year. Page/plate number. Medium of reproduction.
Examples:
Eakins, Thomas. Spinning. 1881. Private collection. Thomas Eakins. Ed. Darrel Sewell. Philadelphia: Philadelphia Museum of Art in assn. with Yale UP, 2001. Plate 91. Print.
Kahlo, Frida. The Two Fridas. 1939. Museo de Art Moderno, Mexico City. Gardner’s Art Through the Ages: The Western Perspective. 12th ed. Ed. Fred S. Kleiner, Christin J. Mamiya. Vol. 2. Belmont: Thomson Wadsworth, 2006. 774. Print.
View this Image Citation Guide (PDF) for more information on citing images.

See Section 5.7.6 of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers for more information.


Digital Image from
the Internet or
Online Database:
Format:
Artist’s last name, first name. Title of artwork. Year. Name of institution/private collection housing artwork. Title of database or website. Publisher/sponsor of database or website. Medium consulted. Date of access. <URL (optional)>.
Note about publisher/sponsor: When known, include if it is not related to the housing institution/collection; is a parent entity of the database or website; or offers the source in additional formats.
URLs are now an optional component of a citation, but it is still recommended to include this information if the reader will not be able to locate a resource without it, or it is part of an instructor’s requirements.


When providing a URL, enclose the complete address in angle brackets following the date of access, period, and a space. End the entire entry with a period after the closing angle bracket:
Examples without URL:
Braun, Adolphe. Flower Study, Rose of Sharon. c. 1854. Metropolitan Museum of Art. Grove Art Online. Oxford University Press. Web. 2 June 2011.
Eggleston, William. Memphis. c. 1969. Museum of Mod. Art. Academy of Art University Collection, LUNA. Academy of Art University. Web. 27 Apr. 2011.
Example with URL:
Cloix, Emmanuel. BROUSSAI 2 visu. 2007. Wikimedia Commons. Wikimedia Foundation. Web. 1 June 2011. <http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:BROUSSAI_2_visu.jpg> .
View this Image Citation Guide (PDF) for more information on citing images.

See Sections 5.6.1, 5.6.2, and 5.7.6 of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers for more information.


Films or Videos
Format:
Title of film or video. Film studio or distributor, Release year. Format.
You may include other data that seem pertinent such as names of the screenwriter, director (use the abbreviation Dir.) performers (use the abbreviation Perf.), and producer between the title and the distributor. For films dubbed or subtitled in English, you may give the English title and follow it with the original title, italicized, in square brackets.
Format should be the format you viewed, for example Film, DVD, or VHS.
Example - Film:
It’s a Wonderful Life. Dir. Frank Capra. Perf. James Stewart, Donna Reed, Lionel Barrymore, and Thomas Mitchell. RKO, 1946. Film.
Example - DVD:
Rebel Without a Cause. Dir. Nicholas Ray. Perf. James Dean, Natalie Wood, Sal Mineo, and Jim Backus. 1955. Warner Home Video, 2005. DVD.
Example - DVD with original title:
Pan’s Labyrinth [El laberinto del fauno]. Dir. Guillermo del Toro. Perf. Ariadna Gil, Ivana Baquero, Sergi López, Maribel Verdú, and Doug Jones. 2006. New Line Home Entertainment, 2007. DVD.
Example - YouTube Video:
"Academy of Art University April 2009 Fashion Show." YouTube, 2009. Web. 29 June 2011. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bUFar8VwJXY&feature=channel_video_title>.
See Sections 5.7.3 and 5.6.2d of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papersfor more information.
MLA Format: MLA Works Cited from Study Guide.org




Note: These citations serve as examples of how to format entries on Works Cited pages of student research papers. These examples may or may not be actual published literary works, and you should not be disappointed if the internet web site URLs are not functional. Again, this page is simply a set of examples to help you format a paper written in MLA style.

When creating your Works Cited Page, remember to:

  • Begin the Works Cited on a new page, but number consecutively (i.e., if the last page of your essay is page 3, the Works Cited is page 4)
  • Alphabetize each entry by first letter
  • Use italics for all titles of books, magazines, films, etc.
  • You do NOT need to include the URL on internet sources unless specifically required.
  • Put quotation marks around the titles of poems, short stories, and articles
  • Indent the 2nd line, the 3rd line, and all subsequent lines of each citation
  • Double-space all entries...the examples which follow are single-spaced only to save space on this handout
Correct citation
Type of citation
Gorman, Elizabeth. Prairie Women. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1986.
Book (One author)
Caper, Charles and Lawrence T. Teamos. How to Camp. Philadelphia: Doubleday, 1986.
Book (Two authors)
Ellis, Doris et.al. History of Japan. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, Inc., 1989.
Book (Three or more authors)
Vanderkirk, Pamela, ed. Ten Short Plays. Los Angeles: Nowell Book Co., 1982.
Book (One editor)
Lockhard, David J. and Charles Heimler, eds. The Oregon Trail. New York: Bonanza Books, 1992.
Book (Two editors)
Carlson, David et.al., eds. Encyclopedia of Animal Life. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1985.
Book (Three or more editors)
Allende, Isabel. "Toad's Mouth." Trans. Margaret Sayers Peden. A Hammock beneath the Mangoes: Stories from Latin America. Ed. Thomas Colchie. New York: Plume, 1992. 83-88.
Book (Single work from an anthology)
American Medical Association. The American Medical Association Encyclopedia of Medicine. Ed. Charles B. Clayman. New York: Random, 1989.
Book by Corporate Author
Hawthorne, Nathaniel. Twice-Told Tales. Ed. George Parsons Lathrop. Boston: Houghton, 1883. 1 Mar. 2002. <http://eldred.ne.mediaone.net/nh/ttt.html>.
Keats, John. Poetical Works. 1884. Bartleby.com: Great Books Online. Ed. Steven van Leeuwen. May 1998. 5 May 2003 <http://www.columbia.edu/126/>.
Book Online
Book Online (Part of Scholarly Project)
Roberts, Sheila. "A Confined World: A Rereading of Pauline Smith." World Literature Written in English. 24(1984): 232-38. Rpt. in Twentieth Century Literature Criticism. Ed. Dennis Poupard. Vol. 25. Detroit: Gale, 1988. 399-402.
Gale Literary Criticism (previously published scholarly article in a collection)
Doctorow, E.L. Introduction. Sister Carrie. By Theodore Dreiser. New York: Bantam, 1985. v-xi.
Introduction, Preface, Foreword, or Afterword
Stowe, Harriet Beecher. "Sojourner Truth, the Libyan Sibyl." 1863. The Heath Anthology of American Literature. Ed. Paul Lauter et al. Vol. 1. Lexington, Heath, 1994. 2425-33.
One volume of multivolume work
Maps 'n' Facts. Computer Software. Broderbund Software, 1995.
Computer Software
Frost, James. "Strawberries in a Field." Perrine's Literature: Structure, Sound,_and Sense. Ed. Thomas R. Arp and
Greg Johnson. New York: Heinle and Heinle, 2002.
Poem
Frost, James. "Strawberries in a Field." Literature Resource Center. Alabama Virtual Library. 15 March 2004.
<http://www.avl.lib.al.us>.
Poem Online
Crane, Stephen. "The Open Boat." Literature Resource Center. Alabama Virtual Library. 12 March 2004.
<http://www.avl.lib.al.us>.
Short Story Online
Cather, Willa. "Paul's Case." Perrine's Literature: Structure, Sound, and Sense. Ed. Thomas R. Arp and Greg Johnson.
New York: Heinle and Heinle, 2002.
Short Story in an Anthology
Dunn, Samuel. "Re: Any Ideas for My Country Project." E-mail to Tom Jones. 26 Feb. 2003.
E-mail **
Barnridge, Thomas H. "Baseball." World Book Encyclopedia. 2001.
Encyclopedia (Signed article)*
"Egypt." The New Encyclopedia Britannica. 2002.
Encyclopedia (Unsigned article) *
Ito, Philip J. "Papaya," World Book Encyclopedia, 1998 ed. The World Book Multimedia Encyclopedia, CD-ROM version of The World Book Encyclopedia.
Encyclopedia (CD-ROM) *
"Egypt." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Vers. 97.1.1. Mar. 1997. Encyclopedia Britannica. 29 Feb. 2000 <http://www.search.eb.com/>.
Encyclopedia (Internet) *
The Empire Strikes Back. Dir. George Lucas. Perf. Mark Hamill, Harrison Ford, Carrie Fisher. Twentieth Century Fox, 1980.
Film
United States Office of Management and Budget. Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 1999. Washington: GPO, 1999.
Government Publication
Whitehurst, Daniel, former mayor of Fresno. Personal interview. 5 Mar. 2003.
Interview (Personal)
Smith, John. "Beowulf: Archetypal Hero." English 102 Class. Vestavia Hills High School, Vestavia Hills, AL. 28 March
2003.
Lecture
Lin, Michael. "Compressing Online Graphics." Online posting. 27 April 1999. MacWeb. 28 Feb. 2003 <http://www.graphica.com/digitizing/intor.html>.
Listserv Posting
Cannon, Angie. "Just Saying No to Tests." U.S. News & World Report. Oct. 1999: 34.
Magazine
Cannon, Angie. "Just Saying No to Tests." U.S. News & World Report 18 Oct. 1999: 3. Alabama Virtual Library. Vestavia Hills High School Library, Vestavia Hills, AL. 28 Feb. 2003. <http://www.avl.lib.al.us>.
Magazine, Online News Subscription Service (Alabama Virtual Library)
Elliott, Michael. "The Biggest Fish of Them All." Time. 8 March 2003. 11 March 2003. <http://www.time.com/time>.
Online Magazine

(Magazine web site)
Barrow, Matthew. "Skipping School? Plan On Walking." Sacramento Bee. 13 Oct. 1999, California final ed.: A1+.
Newspaper Article, (Signed)
"Gorilla attacks Martian." National Enquirer 16 Mar. 1999: A-14.
Newspaper Article, (Unsigned)
Bradley, Donald. "Is There a Right Way?" Kansas City Star 23 May 1999: 2-4. SIRS Researcher. Alabama Virtual Library.. 28 Feb. 2003. <http://www.avl.lib.al.us/>.
Newspaper Article, Online News Subscription Service (SIRS)
"Charles Frazier." Contemporary Authors Online. 2001. Galegroup.com. Alabama Virtural Library. 28 February 2003 <http://www.avl.lib.al.us/>.
Gale Literary Criticism Online (Unsigned)
McCarron, Bill. "Images of War and Peace: Parallelism and Antithesis in the Beginning and Ending of Cold Mountain." The Mississippi Quarterly.52.2 (1999): 273. Galegroup.com. Alabama Virtual Library. 25 February 2003. <http://www.avl.lib.al.us>..
Gale Literary Criticism Online (Signed)
Achenbach, Joel. "America's river." Washington Post. 5 May 2002. 20 July 2003 <http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A13425-2202May1.html>.
Newspaper Article (Newspaper Website)
Your Health. New York: Modern Woman, 1996.
Pamphlet
"Karma Chameleon." Northern Exposure. CBS. KCRA, Sacramento. 29 Feb. 2000.
Television or Radio (Live)
Smith, Greg. "Rhesus Monkeys in the Zoo." No date. Online image. Monkey Picture Gallery. 3 May 2003.
<http://monkeys.online.org/rhesus.jpg>.
Published Photograph
"Candy Cotton at the Fair." Birmingham, AL. Personal photograph taken by Quincy Adams. 5 March 2004.
Personal Photograph
Adams, Mindy. "Critical Eye for the Fantasy Guy." 4 January 2004. Online PowerPoint. Studyguide.org. 7 March 2004.
<www.studyguide.org/fantasy.htm>.
Power Point Online
Civil War Diary. Videotape. New World Entertainment, 1990.
Videotape
Springsteen, Bruce. "Dancing in the Dark." Born in the USA. Columbia, 1984. Music video. Dr. Brian De Palma. VH1.
10 May 2002.
Music Video
"Cabinet Nominations," Chapter 20. Powers of the President. Laser videodisc. Pioneer Communications of America, Inc. American Broadcasting Companies, Inc., 1995.
Video Laserdisc
"Castles in Medieval Times." yourchildlearns.com. 2000. Owl and Mouse Educational
Software. 9 March 2003. <http://www.yourchildlearns.com/castle_history.htm>.
Web Page that is part of a larger web site
Schrock, Kathleen. "Digital Gadgets." Kathy Schrock's Guide for Educators. 20 February 2002. Discovery Channel. 11 March 2003. <http://school.discovery.com/schrockguide/gadgets.html>.
"Great Gatsby Study Guide." studyguide.org. 5 January 2002. 11 March 2003.

<http://www.studyguide.org/gatsby_study_guide.htm>.
Note: If no title for the page is provided, write Home page (do not underline and do not use quotation marks).
Web page (Personal or Professional)
The Cinderella Project. Ed. Michael N. Salda. Vers. 1.1.Dec. 1997. De Grummond Children's Lit. Research Collection, University of Southern Mississippi. 9 March 2003.

<http://www-dept.usm.edu/~engdept/cinderella/cinderella.html>.
Web page from a university (scholarly online project)
"Langston Hughes Poetry Circles." February 2003. National Council of Teachers of English. 10 March 2003. <http://www.ncte.org/special/LangstonHughes/>.
Web page (Professional Organization)
*While you may wish to consult a general reference source like a comprehensive encyclopedia for background information, avoid using and citing such resources in documented literary papers. More specialized sources are preferred.

The following resources are NOT credible and should never be used or cited in a documented literary paper: SparkNotes©, Cliff's© Notes, PinkMonkey Notes©, and similar sources. Be very cautious in your use of resources from the Internet. Essays by middle school and high school students should certainly not be deemed reliable. Similarly, comments on books which are randomly submitted by readers lack credibility.
Note: The above citations serve as examples of how to format entries on Works Cited pages of student research papers. These examples may or may not be actual published literary works, and you should not be disappointed if the internet web site URLs are not functional. Again, this page is simply a set of examples to help you format a paper written in MLA style.**